The First 19 Foods You Should Stockpile For Disaster

A good stockpile of food will go a long way toward helping you survive the aftermath of any disaster or life crisis, especially when grocery stores are emptied.

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In fact, I’d go so far as to say that there are people who are not preppers who nevertheless instinctively know to stockpile food. This really isn’t surprising when you consider that through most of mankind’s history, stockpiling food was essential to survival — specifically surviving the winter months. During those months, wildlife is bedded down trying to stay warm and plants are dormant. If one didn’t have a good stockpile of food, their chances of survival were pretty darn slim.

But knowing to stockpile food and knowing what to stockpile are two different things. The vast majority of what the average American family eats is unsuitable for stockpiling, because it falls into one of three categories:

  • Junk food – Lots of carbs, lots of sugar, lots of salt and lots of chemicals, but not much nutrition.
  • Fresh food – Foods that won’t keep without refrigeration.
  • Frozen food – It will begin to spoil within two days of losing electrical power.

So we need to come up with other foods — foods that will give us a lot of nutrition and also have the ability to be stored for a prolonged period of time. Here are what we consider the 19 most important ones:

1. Beans – This is one of the more common survival foods. Not only are beans plentiful and cheap, but they provide a lot of protein — something that’s hard to find without meat.

2. White rice – The perfect companion to beans. An excellent source of carbohydrates, and it stores well. [Note: Don’t store brown rice, which contains oils and will spoil.]

3. Canned vegetables – A good way of adding micro-nutrients to your survival diet. Canned goods keep well, long past the expiration date on the label.

4. Canned fruit – For something sweet, adding canned fruit allows you a nice change of diet. Being canned, they keep as well as the vegetables do.

5. Canned meats – Of all the ways of preserving meat, canning is the most secure in protecting the meat from decomposition. While it doesn’t typically have as good a flavor as fresh meat, it still provides animal protein at the most reasonable price you’ll find.

6. Honey – As long as you can keep the ants out of it, honey keeps forever. Plus, it is beneficial during cold season.

7. Salt – Nature’s preservative. Most means of preserving foods require the use of salt. In addition, our bodies need to consume salt for survival.

8. Pasta products – Pasta is a great source of carbohydrates, allowing you a lot of variety in your cooing. Besides that, it’s a great comfort food for kids. Who doesn’t like spaghetti?

9. Spaghetti sauce – Obviously, you need this to go with the pasta. But it is also great for hiding the flavor of things your family doesn’t like to eat. Pretty much anything, with spaghetti sauce on it, tastes like Italian food — whether you’re talking about some sort of unusual vegetable or a raccoon that you caught pilfering from your garden.

10. Jerky – While expensive to buy, jerky is pure meat, with only the addition of spices. Its high salt content allows it to store well, making it a great survival food. It can be reconstituted by adding it to soups and allowing it to cook.

11. Peanut butter – Another great source of protein and another great comfort food, especially for the kiddies. It might be a good idea to stockpile some jelly to go with it.

12. Wheat flour – For baking, especially baking bread. Bread is an important source of carbohydrates for most Americans. Flour also allows you to shake up the diet with the occasional batch of cookies or a cake.

13. Baking powder & baking soda – Also for making the bread, cookies or cakes.

14. Bouillon – Otherwise known as “soup starter,” this allows you to make the broth without having to boil bones on the stove for hours. Soups will probably be an important part of anyone’s diet in a survival situation, as they allow you to eat almost anything. Just throw it together in a pot and you’ve got soup.

15. Water – We don’t want to forget to stockpile a good supply of water. You’ll go through much more than you expect. Experts recommend a minimum of one gallon per person per day, but remember: That’s just for drinking.

16. Whole-wheat –Crackers are a good replacement for bread and make a fine substitute when making sandwiches. Due to their higher fat content, whole-wheat or whole-grain crackers have a shorter shelf life than their plain counterparts (check the box for expiration dates), but the extra fiber pays off when you’re particularly hungry. Consider vacuum-packing your crackers to prolong their freshness.

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17. Nuts and trail mixes – Stock up on these high-energy foods—they’re healthful and convenient for snacking. Look for vacuum-packed containers, which prevent the nuts from oxidizing and losing their freshness.

18. Powdered milk –Almost all dairy products require refrigeration, so stock this substitute for an excellent source of calcium and vitamin D when fresh milk isn’t an option.

19.Multivitamins –Supplements will help replace the nutrients you would have consumed on a normal diet.

While this doesn’t constitute a complete list of every type of food that you should stockpile, it’s a good starting point. You’ll want more variety than this, but in reality, your family can survive for quite a while with just the 15 things on this list.

As your stockpile grows, add variety to it. One way of doing that is to create a three-week menu, with the idea of repeating that menu over and over. If you have everything you need to cook everything on that menu, you’ll have a fair assortment of food, and enough so that your family shouldn’t grow tired of it.

10 Basic Foods To Rely On For Survival

If you’re only preparing foods to survive, it doesn’t have to be fancy but it does need to be safe and nutritious.

Some foods aren’t nutrient-dense but they are packed with carbs that will give you energy to keep going.  You need to learn how to prepare these foods BEFORE SHTF. Today we’re going to talk about some basic foods that you need to know how to prepare for survival.

Bread and Biscuits

Though bread and biscuits aren’t necessarily nutrient-dense, they arelight to carry and provide a quick source of carbs.

They also help other foods such as meats go a bit further toward filling your belly. You can stretch your valuable food supply by knowing how to combine flour, butter, milk and salt to make biscuits.

Plus, once you know how to make biscuits, you can get fancy by adding fruits, spices (cinnamon is awesome in a biscuit!), vegetables (my favorite is a bit of jalapeno pepper) or sugar to spice them up.Here are 23 survival uses for honey that you didn’t knowabout.

Add some yeast and sugar and you can make bread, too.

Gravy

Gravy is another one of those foods that will help you fill bellies and stretch your food supply. All you need is fat, flour, salt, pepper and water or milk. I personally like to start my gravy by adding water to the browned flour to get the base going, then add some milk to make it creamy but in a pinch it can be made with just water. Or, if you have a cow but a limited supply of water, you can always use just milk.

Butter

Homemade butter

Butter is a good source of fat in a survival situation. Considering how easy it is to make and how easy it will be to barter, knowing how to make butter in a survival situation is a no-brainer. All you need to do is skim the cream from your milk and shake it in a jar. It helps if you let the cream sit out for a few hours. Then you just put it in a jar and shake it.

You’ll notice chunks forming, then you’ll see it forming a solid clump. Once you have the solid clump, stop shaking. Pour the contents of the jar through a cheesecloth or linen towel then rinse the butter under cool water. Put the butter in a bowl. Don’t throw away the juice – that’s buttermilk and it makes excellent biscuits and pancakes.

Using a wooden spoon or flat spatula, work the butter around in the bowl so that you press the rest of the liquid out of it. Once you have all of the liquid out of it, add salt to taste and you’re done. You can also use a butter churn if you have one to make larger batches.

Jerky

Jerky is light and is a great source of protein. It’s easy to carry and lasts for a week or two after you make it if you don’t preserve it as long as you prepare it properly.

Slice the meat as thin as you can get it, season it with your choice of seasonings or marinade and hang it to dry over a fire, assuming you don’t have power. You can even dry it in the sun if it’s hot and sunny enough but you need to start in the morning.

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Flour

If SHTF, you may not have a source of flour. If you have access to wheat or nuts, you can make your own flour by using a hand mill or a mortar and pestle, though the latter isn’t a great choice because it takes so long. Remember that homemade flour will still have the oils from the nuts or seeds that it’s made from so it will go rancid fairly quickly.

Milk

Milking goat

There are a couple of different kinds of milk that people consider palatable; cow milk and goat milk.

Regardless of which one you choose (or have access to), you need to follow proper sanitation procedures in order to keep bacteria from making you or your family sick.

Wash the udders well and use clean pails. Strain the milk before you drink it.

If you want to go a step further, you can pasteurize it by heating it to 161 degrees for 15 seconds.

Cheese

making cheese

Cheese is a good source of protein even if you’re a lacto-vegetarian. You can make a simple cheese from milk by adding a bit of acid such as vinegar or lemon juice. The important part here is that you need to find the right ratio of milk to acid.

Too much milk and it won’t curdle. Too much acid and it will be tart. Just bring your high-fat milk (you can add cream if you’d like) to just below a simmer, using low heat, then add in the acid and some salt.

You’ll see it instantly separate into curds of cheese and whey, the liquid part. Strain these out by placing it in a cheesecloth or linen towel then squeeze the rest of the whey out. You have a smooth cheese similar to ricotta. If you want it firmer, squeeze it a bit more then chunk it up and add some cream and salt to it and you have cottage cheese.

If you want it a bit firmer, place it in a linen cloth and press it for a couple of hours between two plates with a weight on top. This results in cheese that has a feta consistency. Press it like this overnight and you’ll have cheese firm enough to cut into cubes. You can always spice it up any way that you’d like before pressing it.

For Vegetarians

Without a doubt, food on the fly will require some advance preparation if you’re a vegetarian. You can dehydrate fruits for carbohydrates and can vegetables for more nutrition. If you’re a lacto-vegetarian, biscuits are a good source of carbs, too. If you have access to nuts, you can make nut butters. Beans are going to be a staple for you too, so dry or buy plenty for your stockpile.

Rendered Fat

rendered fat

This process can be a bit stinky but the rendered fat will come in handy in a variety of ways. You can use it to cook with or to waterproof your clothing. It’s a bit of a process but will be worth it.

Pemmican

Pemmican was used by Native Americans for centuries as a near-perfect combination of protein, fat and carbohydrates. It’s energy-dense and it takes your body a while to digest it so it’s a good source of long-term energy. You make it simply by using equal parts (use weight, not volume) of dried meat, rendered fat and dried berries.

Pulverize the dried meat and berries into minced portions, almost a powder. Add a handful of the fat and start working it in to the meat and berries. Continue mixing the fat in until you have everything mixed thoroughly and it’s sort of dough-like.

If you have chunks of fat left, continue kneading until it melts into the mixture. Separate out into balls about the size of ping-pong balls and store in an air-tight container. As long as the meat was dried completely and the fat was rendered properly, you don’t need to refrigerate pemmican. Eat is in small portions though because it IS energy-dense. You don’t need much of it to survive and even thrive.

There are many foods that will serve you well in a survival situation but it’s important that you learn how to make them before you NEED to know how. If you have any other food that you think should be included on the list, tell us about it in the comments section below.

10 Weird Foods That Were Common During The Great Depression

The Great Depression, with all of its hardships, was one of the most prolific times in the history of the American diet. This period required homemakers to develop creative new ways to feed their families, sometimes for less than pennies a day. But as the economy improved and more Americans went back to work, many of these dinnertime staples simply faded out of style.

Here’s just a glimpse of what you’ll find in The Lost Ways:

You’ll discover the lost remedies used by our ancestors for centuries. And I’m not talking about rare and complicated insights that only a botanist knows. I’m talking about plants that grow in your backyard or around your house. Very common weeds.

For example, I’m sure you’ve already seen this plant…

Yet they haven’t faded from memory. Here are 10 Great Depression foods that seemed strange and even weird at the time.

1. Prune Pudding

Prunes were a humble, inexpensive food source during the Depression. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt actually made headlines by pressuring her husband to eat prune pudding when guests came to the White House for a visit. Why prunes? They were easily stored and didn’t cost as much as other fresh fruits.

2. Dandelion salad

Foraging was not uncommon during the Great Depression, and it was easy and free to scavenge in the backyard for edible greens. Dandelions weren’t the only produce of choice; many Depression-era homesteaders also made soups or salads out of burdock root, wild onions and other weeds. Although dandelion salad is still popular in many cultures today, it’s typically accompanied by sweet or tangy ingredients to offset the bitterness of the plant.

3. Fish …. anything

Fishing was a popular pastime during this era, not just because it was an enjoyable way to spend a Sunday, but also because it put food on the table! A weekend fish fry would produce enough leftovers for the entire week. Bones, heads and tails could be used for soup or gravy stock.

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4. Creamed chipped beef

This curious dish originated in Pennsylvania Dutch country and consisted of salted beef and milk. Any kind of beef-like meat could be used (cows were difficult and expensive to raise, so goats or wild game could also be used).

It was typically served on toast and became a staple for soldiers fighting overseas during World War II. Ever heard your grandparents talk about you-know-what on a shingle? This is it!

5. Ritz cracker crust

The purpose behind this crust has nothing to do with the crust itself, but what the buttery flavor of the Ritz crackers does for the apples. Apples were in short supply during the Depression, so the rich flavor of the crackers helped to supplement the limited apple flavor.

6. Spaghetti with boiled carrots

15 Weird Foods That Were Common During The Great Depression

Carrots were easy to grow in most homestead gardens during the Great Depression. As a result, spaghetti with boiled carrots—with the addition of a simple white sauce—was a heavily promoted, relatively nutritious dish in schools throughout the country.

7. Meatless loaf

When raising livestock was impractical or impossible, many Depression-era cooks turned to meatless loaves for sustenance. Made out of vegetarian ingredients such as peanuts, rice, cottage cheese and flour, these cakes were popular before tofu was even a thing.Here are 23 survival uses for honey that you didn’t knowabout.

8. Vinegar pie

As mentioned, fruits were in low supply and high demand during the Great Depression. During cold winter months, most families found themselves without any fruit at all. What to do about dessert? Many bakers added vinegar to a mixture of spices (such as cinnamon and cloves) and—if fortunate enough—butter or cream to create a low-cost version of a pie or cobbler.

9. Peanut butter stuffed onions

This dish was commonly suggested in newspapers and magazines as a nutritious and delicious recipe for any family’s table. Although the glop wasn’t popular for its taste, texture or nutritive qualities, it must have contributed to at least a small uptick in oral hygiene.

10. Kraft macaroni and cheese — wait, what?

James Lewis Kraft, the founder of Kraft foods, patented the process of emulsifying and powdering processed cheese in order to give it a longer shelf life—a necessity during this time period. Although the packaged dish was originally sold as a bag of pasta with a package of powdered cheese attached to it, it still exists today as one of the few Depression-era meals with lasting popularity in American households.

Making ends meet was tough during the Great Depression, but with some creative thinking and adventurous palates, these homesteaders made the most of whatever they were given.  Whether you’re planning meals for a large family or on your homestead, keep these tips in mind for ultimate success in living off the land.

Have you ever thought about living without electricity, internet or mobiles? We can guarantee that the majority of our readers can never imagine this kind of scenarios.
However, there are chances that this type of conditions arises in your life due to flooding, tornadoes, draught or even war.
How could you survive in this type of dangerous condition? We believe you should stay prepared by learning the essential skills needed to deal with these disasters, watching this video
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Puzzling Black Hole Information Paradox: You Are Dead And Alive At The Same Time When You Fall Into A Black Hole

Can you imagine that you are alive and dead at the same, or that you experience two different realities simultaneously?

It sounds incredible and impossible, but this is exactly what could happen in you fell into a black hole.

Many wonder what happens to a person who falls into a black hole. The truth is that no-one knows, but there are some fascinating theories and now one them involves the puzzling black hole information paradox that no-one has been able to solve yet, not even famous physicist Stephen Hawking.

The black hole information paradox has puzzle scientists for centuries and it has triggered endless debates on what actually happens once you enter a black hole.

Hawking has presented a solution to the paradox, but scientists say it’s too early to say whether Hawking’s idea is a real step forward.

A black hole is a place where the laws of physics as we know them break down and this is one of the reasons why these elusive huge dark objects are so fascinating. A black hole may arise from the death of a large star that has run out of fuel for nuclear fusion and collapsed under its own gravity.

The existence of black holes has been confirmed and astronomers estimate there are as many as 100 million black holes in our galaxy alone.

Some of these monster black holes have a mass about 10 billion times greater than the Sun!

Inside a black hole gravitational field becomes so strong that not even light can escape. So, if you feel into one of these giant monsters you would expect to die, but your fate would be far stranger than that.

The outermost boundary of the hole is its event horizon, the point at which the gravitational force precisely counteracts the light’s efforts to escape it. If you go closer than this there is no way to escape.

You can’t turn around and escape the black hole, any more than you can turn around and travel back to the past, at least not according to the knowledge we possess now.

The black hole paradox is a riddle resulting from the combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity. According to quantum mechanics.

A black hole should store information about matter that has fallen in, but calculations suggest that physical information could permanently disappear in a black hole, allowing many physical states to devolve into the same state.

Physicists have tried to find a way for the information to escape the black hole’s demise via the Hawking radiation. The problem with this scenario, however, is that black holes appear to have no way to impart information to this radiation.

The best way to understand the black hole paradox is through an example.

Suppose your friend, let’s call her Carol, watches from a distance how you are falling into a black hole. Carol can see how you slowly get stretched until you eventually evaporate into a crisp. Looking through Carol’s eyes, you are dead.

Here comes what’s really bizarre. You’re are now inside the black hole and you are not dead. You are alive, even though Carol just saw you die. Amazing, isn’t it?

This is the black hole information paradox. It’s not an illusion and neither you nor Carol are insane. Something very strange has happened and no-one can at this point explain why or how.

According to the laws of physics you are dead outside the black hole and alive within it. Physicists are struggling with this contradicting chain of events. Some have suggested this is not a paradox at all because both realities cannot be observed at the same time. There are also some who try to solve the paradox proposing cloning.

Leonard Susskind, Professor of Theoretical Physics at Stanford University, and Director of the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics stated that there is no real paradox because no-one can see your clone. Carol only sees one copy of you. You only see one copy of you. You and Carol can never compare notes and there’s no third observer who can see both inside and outside a black hole simultaneously. So, no laws of physics are broken.

But if you would like to know whether you are alive or dead, then there is a problem because there is now answer.

However, we should not forget that proposing cloning as solution, defies quantum mechanics laws pertaining to conservation of information. Information cannot be cloned. You have to be in two places, but there can only be one copy of you.

Physicists will undoubtedly continue to debate the black hole information paradox for many years to come. Our knowledge about black holes is increasing and with time we will understand better the complexity of these giant monsters in space.

Black holes certainly give us a lot to think about.

In An EMP Attack, Or A Major Power Grid Failure, GPS Systems Would Be Out Of Service Along With Cell Phones And Other Electronic Communication Systems: 8 Tools For Underground City Navigation

In an EMP attack, or a major power grid failure, GPS systems would be out of service along with cell phones and other electronic communication systems.  So all you rely on today for getting from one place to another will be rendered useless and all you’ll have left is your knowledge and your skills.

That is if you have them, because not a lot of us have ever been put in a situation where they had to get from A to B using the underground sewage system. Or even a map or a road atlas.

That’s why it would be to your advantage to know how to navigate using these older, tried and true methods. It’s never to late to start learning and practicing your skills, so I won’t drag this on anymore and get to the point.

Using Maps to Find Your Way Above Ground

How to Use Folding Street Map

A folding street map is exactly what the name implies. It is a detailed map of streets in a specific area. To be compact the map is folded up to conserve space. These types of maps were originally designed to be kept in motor vehicle glove boxes or to be carried in back packs or brief cases by pedestrians.

{adinserter emp}A street map is a grid map. Map grids are formed by vertical and horizontal lines drawn on the map. Locations on a map are expressed as grid coordinates. Grid coordinates are designed to divide the earth’s surface equally and evenly on a flat surface.

Map coordinates are the numbers and letters used to pinpoint a location. The letters are on the top and bottom of the map and the numbers are on the left and right side of the map. To locate the street that you are looking for first check the street index for the coordinates.

To locate the street on a map, read right across the bottom of the map until you find a grid coordinate that corresponds to your east-west position. Then read up the left side of the map until you reach a coordinate that corresponds to the north-south position. Where these lines cross will be the location of the street that you are looking for.

Note: On proper street maps, North is always up.

The map legend is an index and a table of contents. It tells when the map was made, a list of street names in the street name index, and all other visual information that is necessary to read and understand the map symbols.

Practice regularly on how to travel across the city without the aid of a GPS system. Get used to using maps and written directions for travel. If you have a good memory, memorize emergency travel routes to your home or to another safe location.

How to Use Bus Route Maps, Trolley Car Route Maps, and Elevated Train Route Maps

In the cities that have public transportation there are usually bus, trolley car, or elevated train route maps at each of the larger stops mounted in a protected frame. These maps are grid maps and can be used to find locations the same way you use a standard city grid map.

There are usually free copies of the maps at these stations to help you find your way when not at the larger protected route maps. These maps may not have a lot of detail, but they will give you a general idea about which way to go.

How to Use the Rand McNally Road Atlas

Rand Map

The road atlas books are grid maps and are updated each year to ensure that the atlas is as accurate as possible. These books contain very detailed maps of all 50 states. These books are usually paperback and are either spiral-bound or staple-bound.

The atlas shows main roads, secondary roads, and major city and county roads. They keep track of all new construction and highways that are being taken out of service. If you have an older atlas, try comparing it to newer ones. Even if there are roads taken out of commission, you may still be able to travel along on foot as opposed to trying to navigate through more difficult places.

These abandoned roads may also be overlooked by anyone trying to stop you from leaving the city. If you aren’t certain about the status of an unmarked road, take some time to visit it when you will not be readily observed in the area. If you notice unusual activity, then it may not be a good idea to try that road during a crisis situation.

To use an atlas, turn to the state you are looking for. Then the specific location within that state in the road or location index. Finally use the map coordinates to locate the location or road you are looking for.

How to Travel Underground

In a time of crisis it may be to dangerous to travel on the city streets. Because of this you will have to find alternate safe ways to travel to get home or to leave the city. To prepare and to practice safe ways of travel will give you and your family the edge in a world gone mad.

How to Read Subway Maps

Subway maps are not grid maps, these maps are subway route maps. Like a grid map, those routes that go up and down travel north-south. The routes that go across the north-south routes are the east-west routes just like the streets above.

Most subway maps come in the following types.

  • The whole subway system map which shows all routes of the system.
  • Individual subway route maps that give better detail  of a subway route in a particular area.
  • Neighborhood maps that show all subway routes going through a particular neighborhood in a city.

Since the subway was tunneled underground each route is color coded, lettered, or numbered and is given a route name.

  • The colors, letters, and numbers define the transit routes.
  • The maps will show you which routes go east-west or north-south.
  • Each station is clearly marked on the map.
  • Each station is clearly marked with the station name on the walls in big letters.

As you enter a subway station from the street there are information signs that tell you the station name or location and if it is open or not. These signs are usually located above the stairs as you enter the station level.

In every station there is an information board that has a large detailed whole subway route map and subway train time schedules. You can always get free subway maps and schedules in this area.

When using a subway map you need to know where you are at and where you wish to go. Say that you are at 5Th ave. and 59Th st. and you wish to go to Time Square and 42St. The subway routes that service 5 Th ave. and 59Th st. are  the N, Q, and the R. The subway routes that go to Times Square and 42St. are  1, 2, 3, 7, A, C, E, N, Q, R, and S. So the N, Q, and R trains will make the trip.

In a time of crisis subway construction maps, abandoned subway tunnel routes, and out of service station locations would be a helpful tool for getting around a major city without the general public knowing of these routes. These maps may be obtained from a construction company’s public relations office that is doing the new subway construction or the city public works department.

Know which Direction Tunnels Go in Your City

railway

In large cities that have tunnels it is very important that you know which direction the tunnel is pointing when you enter it or exit it. Depending on the city location the tunnels may be north-south or east-west.

In the beginning of a crisis it may be safe to use a tunnel to get out of a city. As the crisis continues there will be uncontrollable traffic jams and grid lock that could make these tunnels unusable and dangerous to use or be in. Most modern tunnels have emergency closing doors that can seal off the tunnel in an emergency situation and possibly trap those individuals inside.

If the crisis was one of biological or nuclear in nature, all roads, bridges, and tunnels would be closed due to martial law in the city to control the population from spreading disease and contamination. With martial law comes the use of deadly force to further control the people and the crisis.

You can also use storm water sewer maps, sewer system maps, and underground utility tunnels and vault maps (natural gas, water, electrical, steam, or other utility services).  In the older larger cities there are miles upon miles of underground storm water sewers,  raw sewage sewers, and combined sewer systems. Each have their good points and each have their bad points as escape routes.

How to Use Raw Sewage Sewers

Raw sewage sewers just transport raw human sewage away from buildings and sends it to a sewage treatment plant. At the treatment  plant the sewage is decontaminated and released to the ocean, rivers, or streams. The nice thing about these sewers is that they run all over the city.  Unfortunately, if you use these sewers even with waders and other protective clothing, there is still a great chance of you getting contaminated and sick from being exposed to the raw sewage.

How to Use Storm Water Sewers  

Storm water sewers just carry rainwater run off. When it is not raining these sewers make a good underground pathway to all parts of the city. If you get caught in these sewers during or after rainstorms flash flooding could kill you by drowning. For safety sake, know what the weather is going to be before going underground and do not forget to wear your waders. Storm water is usually sent directly to lakes, rivers, streams, or to the ocean, so following them will take you out of the city and possibly quite far from it.

How to Use Combined Water Sewer Systems

Combined sewer systems are designed to carry raw sewage, industrial waste water, and rainwater runoff in the same pipes to waste water treatment plants. Not only does this treatment plant treat raw sewage, but it must remove all kinds of toxic waste compounds from the water as well. When industrial waste compounds are mixed up in the sewer system water, no one truly knows how dangerous and what kind of a health hazard exists.  Therefore, it is hard to say what will happen to your health  if you are traveling unprotected in these sewers.

Where to Get Your Maps From

For secrecy sake and if you have some knowledge of map making, it would be to your advantage to make your own maps for traveling around the city. If you are planning to use the storm water system only,  then you could walk the proposed rainwater routes on the surface then make your map. Test the routes to ensure that they will work out for you.

If you are not very good at making maps or the city is too large, then you will need to locate city maps that will be detailed enough for you to make multiple travel routes through different types of terrain. When you are traveling in a crisis situation to either your home or trying to leave the city, it would be to your advantage to use a route that has a very little chance of you being seen or followed.  With multiple route plans, if there is a problem on one route, all you have to do is to switch it to another route and continue on your way.

The following is a list of places where you might locate underground maps of your city:

  • City public works office.
  • The city planner’s office.
  • The city building permit office.
  • The city records office.
  • If you can’t find maps in these places, the city clerk may be able to direct you to a viable source.
  • If the city is very old and has a lot of classic architecture there is a good chance that some of the old underground utility tunnels may be intact, and old maps of the tunnels may be found at the city’s public library.
  • In some of the older cities in this country like New York City, they also have a lot of natural caves in and around the city. With a little research it might be possible to locate old caving map books or old city maps in a library research section.  Even though these caves and tunnels may have been abandoned for decades, you may still be able to travel through them safely.

Now that you know the basics of underground traveling during disaster, all that’s left to do is practice. Try different routes in your area and see how you manage to get there without using any electric device. And by “routes” I don’t mean a trip to the corner store.

Many Attacks On Science Due to Some Sophisticated Sociological Argument Are Self-Refuting, Since Anti-Science Areas Would Have At Least As Severe Problems: “Science Was Wrong Before!”

A common complaint by various pseudoscience activists and movements is that “science was wrong before”. They argue that scientists and scientific results cannot be trusted and use a range of different tactics and tropes to make their case.

There are many ways to refute this claim: science does not need to be perfect, it is worse to be wrong now, science is probably not mistaken on core issues and the reason we know that people in the past were wrong about things is science itself. Moreover, science does not change arbitrarily, but updates and improves. Many simpler models, including Newtonian mechanics, is still highly accurate and useful today.

Many of the supposed historical claims made by the “science was wrong before” crowd are not even accurately explained and several of them are much more complicated than they first appear. They rarely provides support for the “science was wrong before” narrative. Science has many fields and methods, so it does not make sense to make wild generalizations across disciplines and insist that an error in the past in one area means that some completely different areas are wrong today. For another response to common complaints about science, see “Politics?! I Thought This Was About Science!”.

It is worse to be wrong now

It is true that science has been wrong in the past, but it is worse to be wrong now. Typically, pseudoscience activists will drag up completely unrelated examples that do not have any direct relevance to the topic currently being discussed. This is a distraction, because the thing that should be discussed is really the scientific evidence against the pseudoscience being discussed.

The point is to figure out if the claims being made is supported by evidence or not. Merely stating that science was wrong at some point in the past has nothing to do with the question of whether the mainstream scientific position is based on evidence right now.

Or to put it more briefly: is science wrong now?

Science is probably not wrong on broad issues.

For some very broad questions, science is probably approximately correct on most things. The evidence for things like evolution or the failure of homeopathy is enormous. The evidence also independently converges from many different sources, methods and areas. While some details might be revised in the future, it is unlikely to be revised in major ways. The evidence is simply too plentiful and too strong.

To drive this point home, it is important to distinguish scientific models from facts and observations. Even if some particular model turns out to be flawed, the basic observations that have been repeatedly demonstrated will not be disproved. Even if we discover some new model for quantum gravity, this would not disprove the basic observation that things fall to the ground when you drop them.

The reason we know science was wrong in the past is science

Science was wrong in the past. How do we know? Because better, more robust and more evidence-based science disproved it. It is not like religious extremism, quackery or magic has replaced science. There are virtually no well-documented historical cases where mainstream science had one position and paranormal movements had another and the paranormal hypothesis won out on the evidence.

Why bet on the weakest horse when the strongest horse has virtually always won? Why invest in pseudoscientific movements and claims that have more or less always been shown to be scams, fakes or other forms of nonsense?

Science does not need to be perfect to be reasonable

Dismissing an entire scientific field or a well-tested medical product by arguing that “science was wrong before” assumes that science has to be perfect. If it is not perfect, it supposedly cannot be trusted. But this is an extreme and unreasonable demand.

After all, no one demands that conspiracy theories, religions, or political ideologies have to be perfect to be believed. Hardly anyone claim that they refuse to get into a car or onto a bicycle unless the vehicle has been shown to be unfailingly perfect. Hardly anyone refuses to cross the street unless it can be guaranteed to 100% that there is no risk. Same goes with drinking a beverage or eating food.

Science does not need to be prefect to be trusted. It is enough that it is highly effective, reliable and reasonable. With know with a high degree of certainty that vaccines work and that the earth is not flat. These conclusions do not change because scientists sometimes makes errors. By that logic, you could not rely on anything (not even yourself) and probably be too afraid to do anything. It is theoretically and practically a non-starter.

Science updates and improves, not changes arbitrarily

Science is not “always changing its mind”. While what is considered well-supported mainstream science can change over time, this change is not random or arbitrarily. Instead, science updates and improves to fit the evidence. It grows our understanding of the world and allows us to help humanity. This is a great strength, not a weakness.

On the contrary, it is a great weakness to keep holding false beliefs about the world simply because a movement has held those beliefs for a very long time. Setting aside false beliefs about the world in favor of the evidence is much, much better than ignoring evidence and refusing to give up false beliefs about the world.

Many simpler models are still relevant and useful today

In popular culture, it is commonly held that Einstein refuted Newton and that therefore, Newtonian mechanics is wrong. While it is true that Newtonian mechanics is just an approximation to reality, it is a highly accurate one in areas that humans commonly find themselves in. For instance, it is Newtonian mechanics and related areas that are used when building cars, bridges and even the earliest space shuttles. We landed on the moon with Newtonian mechanics. General relativity only adds small differences in the calculations that turn out not to matter in practice.

More crucially, the predictions made by general relativity (or any new scientific model) has to make the same predictions as older models in areas where they both apply. In other words, there has to be some degree of correspondence between new and older models in science. For instance, quantum mechanics converge on classical physics as the level of scale being analyzed grows.

Sociological objections to science hit anti-science even harder

Scientists are humans. This means that they sometimes make errors, buy into dangerous ideologies, succumb to political pressure or become corrupted by money.

This is not something that is specific to science, but to a great many areas, simply because it involves humans that are by their very nature imperfect. This kind of sophisticated sociological criticism of science has some merits, but self-detonate when taken too far.

This is because science has many self-correcting mechanisms and norms that are designed to prevent and combat many of these problems. On the contrary, this is not as prominent when it comes to anti-science movements or sophisticated sociologists. Thus, these contrarian movements are even more vulnerable to error and corruption.

In essence, overreliance on sophisticated sociological arguments proves too much. They throw out the baby with the bath water. The surgery is successful, but the patient died. More crucially, if their basic argument was true, it would also automatically refute their own positions and movements.

In other words, extreme versions taken by some “science was wrong before” activists are fundamentally self-contradictory positions to take.

Many “science was wrong before” examples are flawed

Galileo was not suppressed by the scientific establishment, but by the Catholic Church. This was not because he proposed a scientific model with the sun at the center and the earth revolving around it. Instead, it was largely a personal conflict with the Pope about religion.

There was no massive amount of evidence that claimed that asbestos or tobacco was safe. In fact, asbestos and tobacco corporations hid evidence that showed that it was dangerous. Most studies showed that smoking was harmful (and still is).

Scientists did not use to think that the earth was flat. In fact, scientists, natural philosophers and other learned intellectuals have known that the earth was not flat since the ancient Greeks. Aristotle put forward three arguments against the notion that the earth was flat. First, the shadow of the earth on the moon during lunar eclipse. Second, the fact that the top of the ship goes over the horizon later than the bottom of the ship. Third and finally, that the visible stars and constellations differed depending on how far north or south you are on the earth. Eratosthenes even measured an approximate circumference of the earth by measuring the angle of the sun at two different places and calculate angles and distances. He was surprisingly accurate.

There was no global cooling consensus in the 1970s. Peterson, Connolley and Fleck (2008) carried out a systematic analysis of all climate papers published between 1965 to 1979 and found that 7 out of 71 (~10%) papers predicted cooling, 20 out of 71 (~30%) were neutral and 44 out of 71 (~60%) predicted warming.

In other words, there was no consensus or even strong support for the notion of global cooling in the 1970s. On the contrary, the majority of papers predicted warming. Today, the consensus is even more overwhelming, with about 90-100% of papers, abstracts and/or expert scientists support it.

In sum, many of the historical examples trotted out by the “science was wrong before” crowd is historically inaccurate in several different ways.

Science has many fields and methods

Science is not some kind of singular thing, but a collection of many different fields, methods and areas of the world. Thus, it is not a valid argument to attack e. g. evolution by saying that science has wrong in the past on a completely different question in a completely different field that used radically different methods.

It just does not compare, no matter what convoluted rationalizations that the “science was wrong before” crowd puts forward. They cannot bring in errors in some wholly unrelated field and use that to undermine the massive amount of evidence that currently exists for e. g. vaccines.

Conclusion

“Science was wrong before” is a terrible argument.

It is surely worse to be wrong right now than at some distant point in the past. Because of the massive amount of scientific evidence supporting core scientific models, it is unlikely that they will be completely disproved in the future. In fact, the very reason that we know that science was wrong in the past is because current science shows this. In their attacks on science, critics are implicitly assuming the validity of the very thing they attack. Science does not have to be perfect in order to be reliable and useful.

The “science was wrong before” crowd never makes similar demands for anything else to be perfect before using. When science changes, it does not change randomly. It updates and improves. Science changing to fit the observable facts is something good, not something bad. Many simpler models used in the past, including Newtonian mechanics, is still highly accurate today in many areas of life. New models have to agree with older models in areas where they both apply and are considered reasonable.

Many attacks on science due to some sophisticated sociological argument are self-refuting, since anti-science areas would have at least as severe problems. Several of the historical examples brought up by the “science was wrong before” crowd are inaccurate. Finally, science has a huge array of different fields and methods. It is not credible to point to weaknesses or problems in one area as an argument against a completely different area.